Drive – Odabir misli #3

Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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Dweck, a psychology professor at Stanford University, has been studying motivation and achievement in children and young adults for nearly forty years, amassing a body of rigorous empirical research that has made her a superstar in contemporary behavioral science. Dweck’s signature insight is that what people believe shapes what people achieve. Our beliefs about ourselves and the nature of our abilities—what she calls our “self-theories”—determine how we interpret our experiences and can set the boundaries on what we accomplish.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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If you believe intelligence is a fixed quantity, then every educational and professional encounter becomes a measure of how much you have. If you believe intelligence is something you can increase, then the same encounters become opportunities for growth. In one view, intelligence is something you demonstrate; in the other, it’s something you develop.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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For example, in one study, Dweck and a colleague asked junior high students to learn a set of scientific principles, giving half of the students a performance goal and half a learning goal. After both groups demonstrated they had grasped the material, researchers asked the students to apply their knowledge to a new set of problems, related but not identical to what they’d just studied. Students with learning goals scored significantly higher on these novel challenges. They also worked longer and tried more solutions. As Dweck writes, “With a learning goal, students don’t have to feel that they’re already good at something in order to hang in and keep trying. After all, their goal is to learn, not to prove they’re smart.”9 Indeed, the two self-theories take very different views of effort. To incremental theorists, exertion is positive. Since incremental theorists believe that ability is malleable, they see working harder as a way to get better. By contrast, says Dweck, “the entity theory . . . is a system that requires a diet of easy successes.” In this schema, if you have to work hard, it means you’re not very good. People therefore choose easy targets that, when hit, affirm their

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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existing abilities but do little to expand them. In a sense, entity theorists want to look like masters without expending the effort to attain mastery. Finally, the two types of thinking trigger contrasting responses to adversity—one that Dweck calls “helpless,” the other, “mastery-oriented.” In a study of American fifth- and sixth-graders, Dweck gave students eight conceptual problems they could solve, followed by four they could not (because the questions were too advanced for children that age). Students who subscribed to the idea that brain-power is fixed gave up quickly on the tough problems and blamed their (lack of ) intelligence for their difficulties. Students with a more expansive mindset kept working in spite of the difficulty and deployed far more inventive strategies to find a solution. What did these students blame for their inability to conquer the toughest problems? “The answer, which surprised us, was that they didn’t blame anything,” Dweck says. The young people recognized that setbacks were inevitable on the road to mastery and that they could even be guideposts for the journey. Dweck’s insights map nicely to the behavioral distinctions underlying Motivation 2.0 and Motivation 3.0. Type X behavior often holds an entity theory of intelligence, prefers performance goals to learning goals, and disdains effort as a sign of weakness. Type I behavior has an incremental theory of intelligence, prizes learning goals over performance goals, and welcomes effort as a way to improve at something that matters. Begin with one mindset, and mastery is impossible. Begin with the other, and it can be inevitable.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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“Try to pick a profession in which you enjoy even the most mundane, tedious parts. Then you will always be happy.”   WILL SHORTZ Puzzle guru

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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That is one lesson of the work of psychologist Anders Ericsson, whose groundbreaking research on expert performance has provided a new theory of what fosters mastery. As he puts it, “Many characteristics once believed to reflect innate talent are actually the results of intense practice for a minimum of 10 years.”11 Mastery—of sports, music, business—requires effort (difficult, painful, excruciating, all-consuming effort) over a long time (not a week or a month, but a decade).12 Sociologist Daniel Chambliss has referred to this as “the mundanity of excellence.” Like Ericsson, Chambliss found—in a three-year study of Olympic swimmers—that those who did the best typically spent the most time and effort on the mundane activities that readied them for races.13 It’s the same reason that, in another study, the West Point grit researchers found that grittiness—rather than IQ or standardized test scores—is the most accurate predictor of college grades. As they explained, “Whereas the importance of working harder is easily apprehended, the importance of working longer without switching objectives may be less perceptible . . . in every field, grit may be as essential as talent to high accomplishment.”14 Flow enters the picture here in two ways. If people are conscious of what puts them in flow, they’ll have a clearer idea of what they should devote the time and dedication to master. And those moments of flow in the course of pursuing excellence can help people through the rough parts. But in the end, mastery often involves working and working and showing little improvement, perhaps with a few moments of flow pulling you along, then making a little progress, and then working and working on that new, slightly higher plateau again. It’s grueling, to be sure. But that’s not the problem; that’s the solution.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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Carol Dweck says, “Effort is one of the things that gives meaning to life. Effort means you care about something, that something is important to you and you are willing to work for it. It would be an impoverished existence if you were not willing to value things and commit yourself to working toward them.”15 Another doctor, one who lacks a Ph.D. but has a plaque in the Basketball Hall of Fame in Springfield, Massachusetts, put it similarly. “Being a professional,” Julius Erving once said, “is doing the things you love to do, on the days you don’t feel like doing them.”16

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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“grit”—defined as “perseverance and passion for long-term goals.”10 The experience of these army officers-in-training confirms the second law

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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Well-roundedness? None of the above. The best

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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The best predictor of success, the researchers found, was the prospective cadets’ ratings on a noncognitive, non-physical trait known as “grit”—defined as “perseverance and passion for long-term goals.”10 The experience of these army officers-in-training confirms the second law of mastery: Mastery is a pain.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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From art history, you might remember Paul Cézanne, the nineteenth-century French painter. You needn’t remember much—just that he was significant enough to have art critics and scholars write about him. Cézanne’s most enduring paintings came late in his life. And one reason for this, according to University of Chicago economist David Galenson, who’s studied the careers of artists, is that he was endlessly trying to realize his best work. For Cézanne, one critic wrote, the ultimate synthesis of a design was never revealed in a flash; rather he approached it with infinite precautions, stalking it, as it were, now from one point of view, now from another. . . . For him the synthesis was an asymptote toward which he was for ever approaching without ever quite reaching it.17 This is the nature of mastery: Mastery is an asymptote. You can approach it. You can home in on it. You can get really, really, really close to it. But like Cézanne, you can never touch it. Mastery is impossible to realize fully. Tiger Woods, perhaps the greatest golfer of all time, has said flatly that he can—that he must—become better. He said it when he was an amateur. He’ll say it after his best outing or at the end of his finest season.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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afflicts roughly 3 percent of the adult population. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV

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seekers. “Purpose provides activation energy for living,” psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi told me in an interview. “I think that evolution has had a hand in selecting people who had a sense of doing something beyond themselves.” “I believe wholeheartedly that a new form of capitalism is emerging.

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“Purpose provides activation energy for living,” psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi told me in an interview. “I think that evolution has had a hand in selecting people who had a sense of doing something beyond themselves.”

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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First, many psychologists and economists have found that the correlation between money and happiness is weak—that past a certain (and quite modest) level, a larger pile of cash doesn’t bring people a higher level of satisfaction. But a few social scientists have begun adding a bit more nuance to this observation. According to Lara Aknin and Elizabeth Dunn, sociologists at the University of British Columbia, and Michael Norton, a psychologist at the Harvard Business School, how people spend their money may be at least as important as how much money they earn. In particular, spending money on other people (buying flowers for your spouse rather than an MP3 player for yourself ) or on a cause (donating to a religious institution rather than going for an expensive haircut) can actually increase our subjective well-being.11 In fact, Dunn and Norton propose turning their findings on what they call “pro-social” spending into corporate policy. According to The Boston Globe, they believe that “companies can improve their employees’ emotional well-being by shifting some of their budget for charitable giving so that individual employees are given sums to donate, leaving them happier even as the charities of their choice benefit.”12 In other words, handing individual employees control over how the organization gives back to the community might do more to improve their overall satisfaction than one more “if-then” financial incentive. Another study offers a second possible purpose-centered policy prescription. Physicians in high-profile settings like the Mayo Clinic face pressures and demands that can often lead to burnout. But field research at the prestigious medical facility found that letting doctors spend one day a week on the aspect of their job that was most meaningful to them—whether patient care, research, or community service—could reduce the physical and emotional exhaustion that accompanies their work.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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But the results for people with profit goals were more complicated. Those who said they were attaining their goals—accumulating wealth, winning acclaim—reported levels of satisfaction, self-esteem, and positive affect no higher than when they were students. In other words, they’d reached their goals, but it didn’t make them any happier. What’s more, graduates with profit goals showed increases in anxiety, depression, and other negative indicators—again, even though they were attaining their goals. “One cannot lead a life that is truly excellent without feeling that one belongs to something greater and more permanent than oneself.”   MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI “These findings are rather striking,” the researchers write, “as they suggest that attainment of a particular set of goals [in this case, profit goals] has no impact on well-being and actually contributes to i ll-being.”15 When I discussed these results with Deci and Ryan, they were especially emphatic about their significance—because the findings suggest that even when we do get what we want, it’s not always what we need. “People who are very high in extrinsic goals for wealth are more likely to attain that wealth, but they’re still unhappy,” Ryan told me.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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The science shows that the secret to high performance isn’t our biological drive or our reward-and-punishment drive, but our third drive—our deep-seated desire to direct our own lives, to extend and expand our abilities, and to live a life of purpose. Bringing our businesses in sync with these truths won’t be easy. Unlearning old ideas is difficult, undoing old habits even harder. And I’d be less sanguine about the prospects of closing the motivation gap anytime soon, if it weren’t for this: The science confirms what we already know in our hearts. We know that human beings are not merely smaller, slower, better-smelling horses galloping after that day’s carrot. We know—if we’ve spent time with young children or remember ourselves at our best—that we’re not destined to be passive and compliant. We’re designed to be active and engaged. And we know that the richest experiences in our lives aren’t when we’re clamoring for validation from others, but when we’re listening to our own voice—doing something that matters, doing it well, and doing it in the service of a cause larger than ourselves. So, in the end, repairing the mismatch and bringing our understanding of motivation into the twenty-first century is more than an essential move for business. It’s an affirmation of our humanity.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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FIRST, ASK A BIG QUESTION . . . In 1962, Clare Boothe Luce, one of the first women to serve in the U.S. Congress, offered some advice to President John F. Kennedy. “A great man,” she told him, “is one sentence.” Abraham Lincoln’s sentence was: “He preserved the union and freed the slaves.” Franklin Roosevelt’s was: “He lifted us out of a great depression and helped us win a world war.” Luce feared that Kennedy’s attention was so splintered among different priorities that his sentence risked becoming a muddled paragraph. You don’t have to be a president—of the United States or of your local gardening club—to learn from this tale. One way to orient your life toward greater purpose is to think about your sentence. Maybe it’s: “He raised four kids who became happy and healthy adults.” Or “She invented a device that made people’s lives easier.” Or “He cared for every person who walked into his office regardless of whether that person could pay.” Or “She taught two generations of children how to read.” As you contemplate your purpose, begin with the big question: What’s your sentence?

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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TAKE A SAGMEISTER The designer Stefan Sagmeister has found a brilliant way to ensure he’s living a Type I life. Think about the standard pattern in developed countries, he says. People usually spend the first twenty-five or so years of their lives learning, the next forty or so years working, and the final twenty-five in retirement. That boilerplate timeline got Sagmeister wondering: Why not snip five years from retirement and sprinkle them into your working years? So every seven years, Sagmeister closes his graphic design shop, tells his clients he won’t be back for a year, and goes off on a 365-day sabbatical. He uses the time to travel, to live places he’s never been, and to experiment with new projects. It sounds risky, I know. But he says the ideas he generates during the year “off ” often provide his income for the next seven years. “Taking a Sagmeister,” as I now call it, requires a fair bit of planning and saving, of course. But doesn’t forgoing that big-screen TV seem a small price to pay for an unforgettable—and un-get-backable—year of personal exploration? The truth is, this idea is more realistic than many of us realize. Which is why I hope to take a Sagmeister in a couple of years and why you should consider it, too.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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GET UNSTUCK BY GOING OBLIQUE Even the most intrinsically motivated person sometimes gets stuck. So here’s a simple, easy, and fun way to power out of your mental morass. In 1975, producer Brian Eno and artist Peter Schmidt published a set of one hundred cards containing strategies that helped them overcome the pressure-packed moments that always accompany a deadline. Each card contains a single, often inscrutable, question or statement to push you out of a mental rut. (Some examples: What would your closest friend do? Your mistake was a hidden intention. What is the simplest solution? Repetition is a form of change. Don’t avoid what is easy.) If you’re working on a project and find yourself stymied, pull an Oblique card from the deck. These brain bombs are a great way to keep your mind open despite constraints you can’t control. You can buy the deck at http://www.enoshop.co.uk/ or follow one of the Twitter accounts inspired by the strategies, such as: http://twitter.com/oblique_chirps.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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TAKE A PAGE FROM WEBBER AND A CARD FROM YOUR POCKET In his insightful book Rules of Thumb, Fast Company magazine cofounder Alan Webber offers a smart and simple exercise for assessing whether you’re on the path to autonomy, mastery, and purpose. Get a few blank three-by-five-inch cards. On one of the cards, write your answer to this question: “What gets you up in the morning?” Now, on the other side of the card, write your answer to another question: “What keeps you up at night?” Pare each response to a single sentence. And if you don’t like an answer, toss the card and try again until you’ve crafted something you can live with. Then read what you’ve produced. If both answers give you a sense of meaning and direction, “Congratulations!” says Webber. “Use them as your compass, checking from time to time to see if they’re still true. If you don’t like one or both of your answers, it opens up a new question: What are you going to do about it?”

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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Motivation is deeply personal and only you know what words or images will resonate with you. Try any of these sites: Despair Inc (http://diy.despair.com/motivator.php) Big Huge Labs (http://bighugelabs.com/motivator.php) Automotivator (http://wigflip.com/automotivator/) To offer you some, er, motivation, here are two posters I created myself:

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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TAKE THREE STEPS TOWARD GIVING UP CONTROL Type X bosses relish control. Type I bosses relinquish control. Extending people the freedom they need to do great work is usually wise, but it’s not always easy. So if you’re feeling the urge to control, here are three ways to begin letting go—for your own benefit and your team’s: 1. Involve people in goal-setting. Would you rather set your own goals or have them foisted upon you? Thought so. Why should those working with you be any different? A considerable body of research shows that individuals are far more engaged when they’re pursuing goals they had a hand in creating. So bring employees into the process. They could surprise you: People often have higher aims than the ones you assign them. 2. Use noncontrolling language. Next time you’re about to say “must” or “should,” try saying “think about” or “consider” instead. A small change in wording can help promote engagement over compliance and might even reduce some people’s urge to defy. Think about it. Or at least consider it, okay? 3. Hold office hours. Sometimes you need to summon people into your office. But sometimes it’s wise to let them come to you. Take a cue from college professors and set aside one or two hours a week when your schedule is clear and any employee can come in and talk to you about anything that’s on her mind. Your colleagues might benefit and you might learn something.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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USE REICH’S PRONOUN TEST Former U.S. labor secretary Robert B. Reich has devised a smart, simple, (and free) diagnostic tool for measuring the health of an organization. When he talks to employees, he listens carefully for the pronouns they use. Do employees refer to their company as “they” or as “we”? “They” suggests at least some amount of disengagement, and perhaps even alienation.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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PLAY “WHOSE PURPOSE IS IT ANYWAY?” This is another exercise designed to close the gap between perception and reality. Gather your team, your department, or, if you can, all the employees in your outfit. Hand everyone a blank three-by-five-inch card. Then ask each person to write down his or her one-sentence answer to the following question: “What is our company’s (or organization’s) purpose?” Collect the cards and read them aloud. What do they tell you? Are the answers similar, everyone aligned along a common purpose? Or are they all over the place—some people believing one thing, others something completely different, and still others without even a guess? For

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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Make your group a “no competition” zone. Pitting coworkers against one another in the hope that competition will spark them to perform better rarely works—and almost always undermines intrinsic motivation. If you’re going to use a c-word, go with “collaboration” or “cooperation.” • Try a little task-shifting. If someone is bored with his current assignment, see if he can train someone else in the skills he’s already mastered. Then see if he can take on some aspect of a more experienced team member’s work. • Animate with purpose, don’t motivate with rewards. Nothing bonds a team like a shared mission. The more that people share a common cause—whether it’s creating something insanely great, outperforming an outside competitor, or even changing the world—the more your group will do deeply satisfying and outstanding work.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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aside an entire school day (or a family vacation day) and ask kids to come

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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Set aside an entire school day (or a family vacation day) and ask kids to come up with a problem to solve or a project to tackle. In advance, help them collect the tools, information, and supplies they might need. Then let them have at it. The next morning, ask them to deliver—by reporting back to the class or the family on their discoveries and experiences. It’s like Project Runway—only the kids come up with the project themselves, and the reward at the end of the day is the chance to share what they’ve created and all they’ve learned along the way.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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GIVE YOUR KIDS AN ALLOWANCE AND SOME CHORES—BUT DON’T COMBINE THEM Here’s why an allowance is good for kids: Having a little of their own money, and deciding how to save or spend it, offers a measure of autonomy and teaches them to be responsible with cash. Here’s why household chores are good for kids: Chores show kids that families are built on mutual obligations and that family members need to help each other. Here’s why combining allowances with chores is not good for kids. By linking money to the completion of chores, parents turn an allowance into an “if-then” reward. This sends kids a clear (and clearly wrongheaded) message: In the absence of a payment, no self-respecting child would willingly set the table, empty the garbage, or make her own bed. It converts a moral and familial obligation into just another commercial transaction—and teaches that the only reason to do a less-than-desirable task for your family is in exchange for payment.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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that movement is the “unschoolers”—families that don’t use a formal curriculum and instead allow their children to explore and learn what interests them. Unschoolers have been among the first to adopt a Type I approach to education. They promote autonomy by allowing youngsters to decide what they learn and how they learn it. They encourage mastery by allowing children to spend as long as they’d like and to go as deep as they desire on the topics that interest them. Even if unschooling is not for you or your kids, you can learn a thing or two from these educational innovators. Start by reading John Taylor Gatto’s extraordinary book, Dumbing Us Down. Take a look at Home Education Magazine and its website. Then check out some of the many other unschooling sites on the Web. For more information, go to http://www.homeedmag.com, http://www.unschooling.com, and http://www.sandratodd.com/unschooling. TURN STUDENTS INTO TEACHERS One of the best ways to know whether you’ve mastered something is to try to teach it. Give students that opportunity. Assign each pupil in a class a different aspect of the broader topic you’re studying—and then have them take turns teaching what they’ve learned to their classmates. And once they’ve got it down, give them a wider audience by inviting other classes, teachers, parents, or school administrators to learn what they have to teach.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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BY GEOFF COLVIN   What’s the difference between those who are pretty good at what they do and those who are masters? Fortune magazine’s Colvin scours the evidence and shows that the answer is threefold: practice, practice, practice. But it’s not just any practice, he says. The secret is “deliberate practice”—highly repetitive, mentally demanding work that’s often unpleasant, but undeniably effective. Type I Insight: “If you set a goal of becoming an expert in your business, you would immediately start doing all kinds of things you don’t do now.”

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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Mindset: The New Psychology of Success BY CAROL DWECK   Stanford’s Dweck distills her decades of research to a simple pair of ideas. People can have two different mindsets, she says. Those with a “fixed mindset” believe that their talents and abilities are carved in stone. Those with a “growth mindset” believe that their talents and abilities can be developed. Fixed mindsets see every encounter as a test of their worthiness. Growth mindsets see the same encounters as opportunities to improve. Dweck’s message: Go with growth. Type I Insight: In the book and likewise on her website, http://www.mindsetonline.com, Dweck offers concrete steps for moving from a fixed to a growth mindset: • Learn to listen for a fixed mindset “voice” that might be hurting your resiliency. • Interpret challenges not as roadblocks, but as opportunities to stretch yourself. • Use the language of growth—for example, “I’m not sure I can do it now, but I think I can learn with time and effort.”

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

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Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln BY DORIS KEARNS GOODWIN   In her entertaining popular history, Goodwin shows Abraham Lincoln as an exemplar of Type I behavior. He worked mightily to achieve mastery in law and politics. He gave his staunchest rivals power and autonomy. And he developed a leadership style rooted in a higher purpose—ending slavery and keeping the union intact. Type I Insight: Goodwin sheds light on Lincoln’s Type I leadership skills. Among them: • He was self-confident enough to surround himself with rivals who excelled in areas where he was weak. • He genuinely listened to other people’s points of view, which helped him form more complex opinions of his own. • He gave credit where it was due and wasn’t afraid to take the blame.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 2654-2692 | Added on Wednesday, 21 February 2018 22:45:56

Drive: The Glossary A new approach to motivation requires a new vocabulary for talking about it. Here’s your official Drive dictionary. Baseline rewards: Salary, contract payments, benefits, and a few perks that represent the floor for compensation. If someone’s baseline rewards aren’t adequate or equitable, her focus will be on the unfairness of her situation or the anxiety of her circumstance, making motivation of any sort extremely difficult.   FedEx Days: Created by the Australian software company Atlassian, these one-day bursts of autonomy allow employees to tackle any problem they want—and then show the results to the rest of the company at the end of twenty-four hours. Why the name? Because you have to deliver something overnight.   Goldilocks tasks: The sweet spot where tasks are neither too easy nor too hard. Essential to reaching the state of “flow” and to achieving mastery. “If-then” rewards: Rewards offered as contingencies—as in, “If you do this, then you’ll get that.” For routine tasks, “if-then” rewards can sometimes be effective. For creative, conceptual tasks, they invariably do more harm than good.   Mastery asymptote: The knowledge that full mastery can never be realized, which is what makes its pursuit simultaneously alluring and frustrating.   Motivation 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0: The motivational operating systems, or sets of assumptions and protocols about how the world works and how humans behave, that run beneath our laws, economic arrangements, and business practices. Motivation 1.0 presumed that humans were biological creatures, struggling for survival. Motivation 2.0 presumed that humans also responded to rewards and punishments in their environment. Motivation 3.0, the upgrade we now need, presumes that humans also have a third drive—to learn, to create, and to better the world.   Nonroutine work: Creative, conceptual, right-brain work that can’t be reduced to a set of rules. Today, if you’re not doing this sort of work, you won’t be doing what you’re doing much longer.   “Now that” rewards: Rewards offered after a task has been completed—as in “Now that you’ve done such a great job, let’s acknowledge the achievement.” “Now that” rewards, while tricky, are less perilous for nonroutine tasks than “if-then” rewards.   Results-only work environment (ROWE): The brainchild of two American consultants, a ROWE is a workplace in which employees don’t have schedules. They don’t have to be in the office at a certain time or any time. They just have to get their work done.   Routine work: Work that can be reduced to a script, a spec sheet, a formula, or a set of instructions. External rewards can be effective in motivating routine tasks. But because such algorithmic, rule-based, left-brain work has become easier to send offshore and to automate, this type of work has become less valuable and less important in advanced economies.   Sawyer Effect: A weird behavioral alchemy inspired by the scene in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer in which Tom and friends whitewash Aunt Polly’s fence. This effect has two aspects. The negative: Rewards can turn play into work. The positive: Focusing on mastery can turn work into play.   20 percent time: An initiative in place at a few companies in which employees can spend 20 percent of their time working on any project they choose.   Type I behavior: A way of thinking and an approach to life built around intrinsic, rather than extrinsic, motivators. It is powered by our innate need to direct our own lives, to learn and create new things, and to do better by ourselves and our world.   Type X behavior: Behavior that is fueled more by extrinsic desires than intrinsic ones and that concerns itself less with the inherent satisfaction of an activity and more with the external rewards to which that activity leads.

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