Drive – Odabir misli #2

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1221-1229 | Added on Monday, 19 February 2018 03:06:16

With these unorthodox ideas percolating in his mind, this unlikely corporate heretic established a new policy: 3M’s technical staff could spend up to 15 percent of their time on projects of their choosing. The initiative felt so counter to the mores of Motivation 2.0, so seemingly illicit, that inside the company, it was known as the “bootlegging policy.” And yet it worked. These walled gardens of autonomy soon became fertile fields for a harvest of innovations—including Post-it notes. Scientist Art Fry came up with his idea for the ubiquitous stickie not in one of his regular assignments, but during his 15 percent time. Today, Post-its are a monumental business: 3M offers more than six hundred Post-it products in more than one hundred countries. (And their cultural impact might be even greater. Consider: But for McKnight’s early push for autonomy, we’d be living in a world without any small yellow squares stuck to our computer monitors. A chilling thought indeed.) According to 3M’s former head of research and development, most of the inventions that the company relies on even today emerged from those periods of bootlegging and experimental doodling.8

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1230-1242 | Added on Monday, 19 February 2018 03:06:41

McKnight’s innovation remains in place at 3M. But only a surprisingly small number of other companies have moved in this direction, despite its proven results. The best-known company to embrace it is Google, which has long encouraged engineers to spend one day a week working on a side project. Some Googlers use their “20 percent time” to fix an existing product, but most use it to develop something entirely new. Of course, Google doesn’t sign away the intellectual property rights to what’s created during that 20 percent—which is wise. In a typical year, more than half of Google’s new offerings are birthed during this period of pure autonomy. For example, scientist Krishna Bharat, frustrated by how difficult it was to find news stories online, created Google News in his 20 percent time. The site now receives millions of visitors every day. Former Google engineer Paul Bucheit created Gmail, now one of the world’s most popular e-mail programs, as his 20 percent project. Many other Google products share similar creation stories—among them Orkut (Google’s social networking software), Google Talk (its instant message application), Google Sky (which allows astronomically inclined users to browse pictures of the universe), and Google Translate (its translation software for mobile devices). As Google engineer Alec Proudfoot, whose own 20 percent project aimed at boosting the efficiency of hybrid cars, put it in a television interview: “Just about all the good ideas here at Google have bubbled up from 20 percent time.”9 Back at Atlassian, the experiment in 20 percent time seemed to work. In what turned out to be a yearlong trial, developers launched forty-eight new projects.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1252-1256 | Added on Monday, 19 February 2018 03:07:12

Autonomy over task is one of the essential aspects of the Motivation 3.0 approach to work. And it isn’t reserved only for technology companies. At Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, D.C., for instance, many nurses have the freedom to conduct their own research projects, which in turn have changed a number of the hospital’s programs and policies.10 Autonomy measures can work in a range of fields—and offer a promising source for innovations and even institutional reforms.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1269-1272 | Added on Monday, 19 February 2018 03:08:25

But the third reason might offer the best explanation of all—and help us understand why so few attorneys exemplify Type I behavior. Lawyers often face intense demands but have relatively little “decision latitude.” Behavioral scientists use this term to describe the choices, and perceived choices, a person has. In a sense, it’s another way of describing autonomy—and lawyers are glum and cranky because they don’t have much of it. The deprivation starts early.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1304-1315 | Added on Monday, 19 February 2018 03:10:25

Today, Best Buy’s headquarters has fewer people working a regular schedule than it has those working a ROWE un-schedule. And even though retail electronics is a brutally competitive industry, Best Buy has held its own both in the marketplace and in its quest for talent. Reporting on the company’s ROWE results in the Harvard Business Review, Tamara Erickson writes: Salaried people put in as much time as it takes to do their work. Hourly employees in the program work a set number of hours to comply with federal labor regulations, but they get to choose when. Those employees report better relationships with family and friends, more company loyalty, and more focus and energy. Productivity has increased by 35%, and voluntary turnover is 320 basis points lower than in teams that have not made the change. Employees say they don’t know whether they work fewer hours—they’ve stopped counting.16 Without sovereignty over our time, it’s nearly impossible to have autonomy over our lives. A few Type I organizations have begun to recognize this truth about the human condition and to realign their practices. More, no doubt, will follow. “In the past, work was defined primarily by putting in time, and secondarily on getting results. We need to flip that model,” Ressler told me. “No matter what kind of business you’re in, it’s time to throw away the tardy slips, time clocks, and outdated industrial-age thinking.”

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1328-1332 | Added on Monday, 19 February 2018 03:11:17

(now part of Amazon.com), thought there was a better way to recruit, prepare, and challenge such employees. So new hires at Zappos go through a week of training. Then, at the end of those seven days, Hsieh makes them an offer. If they feel Zappos isn’t for them and want to leave, he’ll pay them $2,000—no hard feelings. Hsieh is hacking the Motivation 2.0 operating system like a brilliant and benevolent teenage computer whiz. He’s using an “if-then” reward not to motivate people to perform better, but to weed out those who aren’t fit for a Motivation 3.0-style workplace.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1365-1366 | Added on Monday, 19 February 2018 03:13:27

some amount of freedom over those with whom they work. For example, at the organic grocery chain Whole Foods, the people who are nominally in charge of each department don’t do the hiring. That

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1366-1370 | Added on Monday, 19 February 2018 03:13:36

 

For example, at the organic grocery chain Whole Foods, the people who are nominally in charge of each department don’t do the hiring. That task falls to a department’s employees. After a job candidate has worked a thirty-day trial period on a team, the prospective teammates vote on whether to hire that person full-time. At W. L. Gore & Associates, the makers of the GORE-TEX fabric and another example of Motivation 3.0 in action, anybody who wants to rise in the ranks and lead a team must assemble people willing to work with her.19

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1380-1382 | Added on Monday, 19 February 2018 03:14:05

ongoing projects. Although autonomy over team is the least developed of the four T’s, the ever-escalating power of social networks and the rise of mobile apps now make this brand of autonomy easier to achieve—and in ways that reach beyond a single organization.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1197-1198 | Added on Monday, 19 February 2018 03:15:18

Type I behavior emerges when people have autonomy over the four T’s: their task, their time, their technique, and their team.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1403-1405 | Added on Monday, 19 February 2018 03:16:41

What’s more, different individuals will prize different aspects of autonomy. Some might crave autonomy over a task; others might prefer autonomy over the team. As Zappos CEO Hsieh told me by e-mail, “Studies have shown that perceived control is an important component of one’s happiness. However, what people feel like they want control over really varies,

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1418-1424 | Added on Tuesday, 20 February 2018 03:03:22

You need not see what someone is doing to know if it is his vocation,   you have only to watch his eyes: a cook mixing a sauce, a surgeon   making a primary incision, a clerk completing a bill of lading,   wear the same rapt expression, forgetting themselves in a function.   How beautiful it is, that eye-on-the-object

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1418-1425 | Added on Tuesday, 20 February 2018 03:03:28

You need not see what someone is doing to know if it is his vocation,   you have only to watch his eyes: a cook mixing a sauce, a surgeon   making a primary incision, a clerk completing a bill of lading,   wear the same rapt expression, forgetting themselves in a function.   How beautiful it is, that eye-on-the-object look.   —W. H. Auden

 

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1440-1443 | Added on Tuesday, 20 February 2018 03:05:07

behavioral compass, they point us toward different destinations. Control leads to compliance; autonomy leads to engagement. And this distinction leads to the second element of Type I behavior: mastery—the desire to get better and better at something that matters. As I explained in Part One, Motivation 2.0’s goal was to encourage people to do particular things in particular ways—that

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1441-1443 | Added on Tuesday, 20 February 2018 03:05:14

Control leads to compliance; autonomy leads to engagement. And this distinction leads to the second element of Type I behavior: mastery—the desire to get better and better at something that matters. As I explained in Part One, Motivation 2.0’s goal was to encourage people to do particular things in particular ways—that

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1448-1456 | Added on Tuesday, 20 February 2018 03:06:54

Only engagement can produce mastery. And the pursuit of mastery, an important but often dormant part of our third drive, has become essential in making one’s way in today’s economy. Unfortunately, despite sweet-smelling words like “empowerment” that waft through corporate corridors, the modern workplace’s most notable feature may be its lack of engagement and its disregard for mastery. Gallup’s extensive research on the subject shows that in the United States, more than 50 percent of employees are not engaged at work—and nearly 20 percent are actively disengaged. The cost of all this disengagement: about $300 billion a year in lost productivity—a sum larger than the GDP of Portugal, Singapore, or Israel.1 Yet in comparative terms, the United States looks like a veritable haven of Type I behavior at work. According to the consulting firm McKinsey & Co., in some countries as little as 2 to 3 percent of the workforce is highly engaged in their work.2

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1469-1469 | Added on Tuesday, 20 February 2018 03:11:00

place to live. His knowledge of Latin, German, and Pogo helped him pass the Illinois high

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1484-1489 | Added on Tuesday, 20 February 2018 03:11:15

Csikszentmihalyi, who by then was teaching at the University of Chicago and running his own psychology lab, clipped on a pager and asked his graduate students to beep him randomly several times each day. Whenever the pager sounded, he recorded what he was doing and how he was feeling. “It was so much fun,” he recalled in his office at the Claremont Graduate University in southern California, where he now teaches. “You got such a detailed picture of how people lived.” On the basis of this test run, he developed a methodology called the Experience Sampling Method. Csikszentmihalyi would page people eight times a day at random intervals and ask them to write in a booklet their answers

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1489-1491 | Added on Tuesday, 20 February 2018 03:11:27

to several short questions about what they were doing, who they were with, and how they’d describe their state of mind. Put the findings together for seven days and you had a flip book, a mini-movie, of someone’s week. Assemble the individual findings and you had an entire library of human experiences.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1515-1518 | Added on Tuesday, 20 February 2018 03:13:05

“The desire to do something because you find it deeply satisfying and personally challenging inspires the highest levels of creativity, whether it’s in the arts, sciences, or business.”   TERESA AMABILE Professor, Harvard University

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1531-1543 | Added on Tuesday, 20 February 2018 03:16:17

Stefan Falk, a vice president at Ericsson, the Swedish telecommunications concern, used the principles of flow to smooth a merger of the company’s business units. He persuaded managers to configure work assignments so that employees had clear objectives and a way to get quick feedback. And instead of meeting with their charges for once-a-year performance reviews, managers sat down with employees one-on-one six times a year, often for as long as ninety minutes, to discuss their level of engagement and path toward mastery. The flow-centered strategy worked well enough that Ericsson began using it in offices around the world. After that, Falk moved to Green Cargo, an enormous logistics and shipping company in Sweden. There, he developed a method of training managers in how flow worked. Then he required them to meet with staff once a month to get a sense of whether people were overwhelmed or underwhelmed with their work—and to adjust assignments to help them find flow. After two years of managerial revamping, state-owned Green Cargo became profitable for the first time in 125 years—and executives cite its newfound flowcentricity as a key reason.5 In addition, a study of 11,000 industrial scientists and engineers working at companies in the United States found that the desire for intellectual challenge—that is, the urge to master something new and engaging—was the best predictor of productivity. Scientists motivated by this intrinsic desire filed significantly more patents than those whose main motivation was money, even controlling for the amount of effort each group expended.6

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1545-1554 | Added on Tuesday, 20 February 2018 03:16:59

And then there’s Jenova Chen, a young game designer who, in 2006, wrote his MFA thesis on Csikszentmihalyi’s theory. Chen believed that video games held the promise to deliver quintessential flow experiences, but that too many games required an almost obsessive level of commitment. Why not, he thought, design a game to bring the flow sensation to more casual gamers? Using his thesis project as his laboratory, Chen created a game in which players use a computer mouse to guide an on-screen amoeba-like organism through a surreal ocean landscape as it gobblies other creatures and slowly evolves into a higher form. While most games require players to proceed through a fixed and predetermined series of skill levels, Chen’s allows them to advance and explore any way they desire. And unlike games in which failure ends the session, in Chen’s game failure merely pushes the player to a level better matched to her ability. Chen calls his game flOw. And it’s been a huge hit. People have played the free online version of the game more than three million times. (You can find it at http://intihuatani.usc.edu/cloud/flowing/). The paid version, designed for the PlayStation game console, has generated more than 350,000 downloads and collected a shelf full of awards.

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1564-1573 | Added on Tuesday, 20 February 2018 03:19:04

The second tactic that smart organizations use to increase their flow-friendliness and their employees’ opportunities for mastery is to trigger the positive side of the Sawyer Effect. Recall from Chapter 2 that extrinsic rewards can turn play into work. But it’s also possible to run the current in the other direction—and turn work into play. Some tasks at work don’t automatically provide surges of flow, yet still need to get done. So the shrewdest enterprises afford employees the freedom to sculpt their jobs in ways that bring a little bit of flow to otherwise mundane duties. Amy Wrzesniewski and Jane Dutton, two business school professors, have studied this phenomenon among hospital cleaners, nurses, and hairdressers. They found, for instance, that some members of the cleaning staff at hospitals, instead of doing the minimum the job required, took on new tasks—from chatting with patients to helping make nurses’ jobs go more smoothly. Adding these more absorbing challenges increased these cleaners’ satisfaction and boosted their own views of their skills. By reframing aspects of their duties, they helped make work more playful and more fully their own. “Even in low-autonomy jobs,” Wrzesniewski and Dutton write, “employees can create new domains for mastery.”7

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Daniel H. Pink)

– Your Highlight at location 1556-1558 | Added on Tuesday, 20 February 2018 03:19:24

Green Cargo, thatgamecompany, and the companies employing the patent-cranking scientists typically use two tactics that their less savvy competitors do not. First, they provide employees with what I call “Goldilocks tasks”—challenges that are not too hot and not too cold, neither overly difficult nor overly simple.

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